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# Advances in Theoretical and Mathematical Physics

## Volume 17 (2013)

### Number 2

### Framed BPS states

Pages: 241 – 397

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4310/ATMP.2013.v17.n2.a1

#### Authors

#### Abstract

We consider a class of line operators in $d = 4, \mathcal{N} = 2$ supersymmetric field theories, which leave four supersymmetries unbroken. Such line operators support a new class of BPS states which we call “framed BPS states.” These include halo bound states similar to those of $d = 4, \mathcal{N} = 2$ supergravity, where (ordinary) BPS particles are loosely bound to the line operator. Using this construction, we give a new proof of the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula (WCF) for the ordinary BPS particles, by reducing it to the semiprimitive WCF. After reducing on $S^1$, the expansion of the vevs of the line operators in the IR provides a new physical interpretation of the “Darboux coordinates” on the moduli space M of the theory. Moreover, we introduce a “protected spin character” (PSC) that keeps track of the spin degrees of freedom of the framed BPS states. We show that the generating functions of PSCs admit a multiplication, which defines a deformation of the algebra of holomorphic functions on $\mathcal{M}$. As an illustration of these ideas, we consider the sixdimensional (2, 0) field theory of $A_1$ type compactified on a Riemann surface $\mathcal{C}$. Here, we show (extending previous results) that line operators are classified by certain laminations on a suitably decorated version of $\mathcal{C}$, and we compute the spectrum of framed BPS states in several explicit examples. Finally, we indicate some interesting connections to the theory of cluster algebras.