Communications in Information and Systems

Volume 15 (2015)

Number 3

Active disturbance rejection control: Theoretical perspectives

Pages: 361 – 421



Bao-Zhu Guo (Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China; and School of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa)

Zhi-Liang Zhao (School of Mathematics and Information Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Shaanxi, China)


This paper articulates, from a theoretical perspective, a new emerging control technology, known as active disturbance rejection control to this day. Three cornerstones toward building the foundation of active disturbance rejection control, namely, the tracking differentiator, the extended state observer, and the extended state observer based feedback are expounded separately. The paper tries to present relatively comprehensive overview about origin, idea, principle, development, possible limitations, as well as some unsolved problems for this viable PID alternative control technology.


active disturbance rejection control, disturbance, tracking differentiator, extended state observer, feedback

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

34D20, 93B51, 93B52, 93C15, 93D15

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