Asian Journal of Mathematics

Volume 19 (2015)

Number 1

A refinement of Günther’s candle inequality

Pages: 121 – 134



Benoît R. Kloeckner (Université Joseph Fourier, Grenoble, France)

Greg Kuperberg (Department of Mathematics, University of California at Davis)


We analyze an upper bound on the curvature of a Riemannian manifold, using “$\sqrt{\mathrm{Ric}}$” curvature, which is in between a sectional curvature bound and a Ricci curvature bound. (A special case of $\sqrt{\mathrm{Ric}}$ curvature was previously discovered by Osserman and Sarnak for a different but related purpose.) We prove that our $\sqrt{\mathrm{Ric}}$ bound implies Günther’s inequality on the candle function of a manifold, thus bringing that inequality closer in form to the complementary inequality due to Bishop.


Günther-Bishop Theorem, Riemannian manifold, Ricci curvature, candle function, volume bounds, curvature bounds

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification


Published 12 February 2015