Communications in Mathematical Sciences

Volume 13 (2015)

Number 1

Hankel tensors: Associated Hankel matrices and Vandermonde decomposition

Pages: 113 – 125



Liqun Qi (Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong)


Hankel tensors arise from applications such as signal processing. In this paper, we make an initial study on Hankel tensors. For each Hankel tensor, we associate a Hankel matrix and a higher order two-dimensional symmetric tensor, which we call the associated plane tensor. If the associated Hankel matrix is positive semi-definite, we call such a Hankel tensor a strong Hankel tensor. We show that an $m$ order $n$-dimensional tensor is a Hankel tensor if and only if it has a Vandermonde decomposition. We call a Hankel tensor a complete Hankel tensor if it has a Vandermonde decomposition with positive coefficients. We prove that if a Hankel tensor is copositive or an even order Hankel tensor is positive semi-definite, then the associated plane tensor is copositive or positive semi-definite, respectively. We show that even order strong and complete Hankel tensors are positive semi-definite, the Hadamard product of two strong Hankel tensors is a strong Hankel tensor, and the Hadamard product of two complete Hankel tensors is a complete Hankel tensor. We show that all the H-eigenvalues of a complete Hankel tensors (maybe of odd order) are nonnegative. We give some upper bounds and lower bounds for the smallest and the largest Z-eigenvalues of a Hankel tensor, respectively. Further questions on Hankel tensors are raised.


Hankel tensors, Hankel matrices, plane tensors, positive semi-definiteness, co-positiveness, generating functions, Vandermonde decomposition, eigenvalues of tensors

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

15A18, 15A69

Published 16 July 2014