Communications in Mathematical Sciences

Volume 18 (2020)

Number 8

A new deviational asymptotic preserving Monte Carlo method for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

Pages: 2305 – 2339



Anaïs Crestetto (Laboratoire de Mathématiques Jean Leray, Université de Nantes, France)

Nicolas Crouseilles (Université de Rennes, Inria Rennes & Institut de Recherche Mathématiques de Rennes, France)

Giacomo Dimarco (Department of Mathematics and Computer Science & Center for Modeling, Computing and Statistics, University of Ferrara, Italy)

Mohammed Lemou (Université de Rennes, Inria Rennes & Institut de Recherche Mathématiques de Rennes, France)


In this work, we introduce a new Monte Carlo method for solving the Boltzmann model of rarefied gas dynamics. The method works by reformulating the original problem through a micro-macro decomposition and successively by solving a suitable equation for the perturbation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium. This equation is then discretized by using unconditionally stable exponential schemes in time which project the solution over the corresponding equilibrium state when the time step is sent to infinity. The Monte Carlo method is designed on this time integration method and it only describes the perturbation from the final state. In this way, the number of samples diminishes during the time evolution of the solution and when the final equilibrium state is reached, the number of statistical samples becomes automatically zero. The resulting method is computationally less expensive as the solution approaches the equilibrium state, as opposite to standard methods for kinetic equations for which computational cost increases with the number of interactions. At the same time, the statistical error decreases as the system approaches the equilibrium state. In a last part, we show the behaviors of this new approach in comparison with standard Monte Carlo techniques and in comparison with spectral methods on different prototype problems.


Boltzmann equation, Monte Carlo methods, asymptotic preserving schemes, micro-macro decomposition

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification

35B25, 65C05, 76P05, 82C80, 82D05

Received 15 December 2019

Accepted 9 July 2020

Published 22 December 2020