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# Mathematical Research Letters

## Volume 3 (1996)

### Number 2

### Instantons and affine algebras I: The Hilbert scheme and vertex operators

Pages: 275 – 291

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4310/MRL.1996.v3.n2.a12

#### Author

#### Abstract

This is the first in a series of papers which describe the action of an affine Lie algebra with central charge $n$ on the moduli space of $U(n)$-instantons on a four manifold $X$. This generalises work of Nakajima, who considered the case when $X$ is an ALE space. In particular, this should describe the combinatorial complexity of the moduli space as being precisely that of representation theory, and thus will lead to a description of the Betti numbers of moduli space as dimensions of weight spaces. This Lie algebra acts on the space of conformal blocks (i.e., the cohomology of a determinant line bundle on the moduli space \cite{LMNS}) generalising the “insertion” and “deletion” operations of conformal field theory, and indeed on any cohomology theory. In the particular case of $U(1)$-instantons, which is essentially the subject of this present paper, the construction produces the basic representation after Frenkel-Kac. Then the well known quadratic nature of $ch_2$, $$ ch_2 = \frac{1}{2} c_1\cdot c_1 - c_2 $$ becomes precisely the formula for the eigenvalue of the degree operator, i.e. the well known quadratic behaviour of affine Lie algebras.

Published 1 January 1996